Table of Contents


I. Introduction

In this CAL module you will learn to detect stratiform clouds in which icing can occur. This will be done with the help of satellite images, soundings and radar images.

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II.What is icing

This chapter is providing insight into types of icing you can find and three factors that are determining the severity of it.

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III.Satellite products

Find out different satellite images from different satellites that are used in the middle and high latitudes, when it comes to icing. Three factors are of concern: space resolution, time resolution, and the availability of daylight.

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IV. Other observations

Here you can find advantages and disadvantages of two observational approaches to icing - radio soundings and radar images.

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V. Case studies

Three case studies of icing episodes from Finland and France are presented here, through satellite images, radio soundings and radar images.

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VI. Summary

This summary gives an overview of all methods for determining presence and severity of icing. Also there are few exercises on icing that are very useful for testing of gained knowledge.

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