Typical Appearance In Vertical Cross Sections

Within the area of the Spanish Plume the isentropes reveal unstable conditions.

  • Unstable stratification:
    The isentropes of equivalent potential temperature show an unstable stratified troposphere within the lower and mid-levels of the troposphere, which is characterized by values decreasing with height. They often also show a super-adiabatic behaviour within the lower layers of the troposphere.
  • Temperature advection:
    The vertical distribution of temperature advection is characterized by distinct WA in the low and mid-levels of the troposphere. CA can sometimes already be found above, but in the early stages of the Spanish Plume CA is most often still lagging behind. Later, during the MCS development, CA is often found above the Spanish Plume and is associated with low-level WA.
  • Convergence:
    The field of divergence generally indicates convergence within the lower and mid-levels, divergence at upper levels.

04 July 2005/00 UTC - Meteosat 8 IR10.8 image; position of vertical cross section indicated

Unstable stratification

04 July 2005/00.00 UTC - Vertical cross section, black: isentropes (ThetaE)

Temperature advection

04 July 2005/00.00 UTC - Vertical cross section, red thick: positive temperature advection - WA, red thin: negative temperature advection - CA, black: isentropes (ThetaE)


04 July 2005/00 UTC - Vertical cross section, magenta thick: convergence, magenta thin: divergence, black: isentropes (ThetaE)